Acids - Chemical Structures

An acid donates a hydrogen ion or proton in aqueous solution.
An acid donates a hydrogen ion or proton in aqueous solution.

Guido Mieth, Getty Images

This is an image gallery of the chemical structures of acids. These include the strong acids, such as hydrochloric and nitric acid, as well as important weak acids. Amino acids are also listed. Most acids contain the element hydrogen, which serves as the donated proton when the acid dissociates in water.

Sulfuric Acid

Ball-and-stick model of sulfuric acid.
Ball-and-stick model of sulfuric acid. Ben Mills

Sulfuric acid is also known as sulphuric acid or vitriol. It is a mineral acid with the formula H2SO4. Pure sulfuric acid is colorless and odorless. It is one of the strong acids.

Hydrogen Iodide or Hydroiodic Acid

This is the chemical structure for hydrogen iodide, HI or hydriodic acid.
This is the chemical structure for hydrogen iodide, HI, which dissociates in water to form the strong acid hydriodic acid. Hydriodic acid is also known as hydroiodic acid or iohydroic acid. Booyabazooka, Wikipedia Commons

The chemical formula of hydroiodic acid is HI. It is also known as hydriodic acid. Hydrogen iodide is a strong acid that completely dissociates in water.

Perchloric Acid

Perchloric acid
Perchloric acid. Ben Mills

The chemical formula for perchloric acid is HClO4. Perchloric acid is a mineral acid. While stronger than sulfuric or nitric acid, perchloric acid solutions are generally safer to use. They become dangerously strong oxidizers when heated.

Hydrofluoric Acid

This is the space-filling structure of hydrogen fluoride or hydrofluoric acid.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the space-filling structure of hydrogen fluoride or hydrofluoric acid. Ben Mills

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is considered to be a weak acid, but it is highly corrosive and acts as a strong acid for all practical purposes.

Hydrochloric Acid

Space-filling model of hydrochloric acid, HCl.
Chemical Structures of Acids Space-filling model of hydrochloric acid, HCl. Ben Mills

Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is one of the strong acids. It is also known as muriatic acid.

Nitric Acid

Nitric acid also is called aqua fortis or spirit of nitre.
Nitric acid also is called aqua fortis or spirit of nitre. LAGUNA DESIGN, Getty Images

Nitric acid is also known as aqua fortis or spirit of niter. Its chemical formula is HNO3. Freshly prepared nitric acid is colorless, but the solution turns yellow over time due to decomposition into nitrogen oxides and water. Nitric acid is one of the strong acids.

Sulfonic Acid Functional Group

This is the two-dimensional structure of the sulfonic acid or sulfo functional group.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the two-dimensional structure of the sulfonic acid or sulfo functional group. Ben Mills

Phosphonic Acid Group

This is the two-dimensional structure of the phosphonic acid or phosphono functional group.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the two-dimensional structure of the phosphonic acid or phosphono functional group. Ben Mills

Phosphoric Acid Structure

Ball and stick model of phosphoric acid.
Ball and stick model of phosphoric acid. Ben Mills

Traumatic Acid

Traumatic acid structure
Traumatic acid structure. Edgar181

Traumatic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is found in some plants. It stimulates healing when plant tissue undergoes trauma. 

Moronic Acid

Moronic acid is a naturally-occurring triterpene found in the sumac plant and mistletoe.
Chemical Structures of Acids Moronic acid is a naturally-occurring triterpene found in the sumac plant and mistletoe. Edgar181, Wikipedia Commons

Moronic acid is a triterpene with the name 3-oxoolean-18-en-28-oic acid. It is extracted from the sumac plant and mistletoe. Its chemical formula is C30H46O3.

Citric Acid

Ball and stick model of citric acid. Citric acid is also known as 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid. It is a weak acid found in citrus fruits and used as a natural preservative and to impart a sour flavoring.
Ball and stick model of citric acid. Citric acid is also known as 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid. It is a weak acid found in citrus fruits and used as a natural preservative and to impart a sour flavoring. Ben Mills

Citric acid (C6H8O7) is a weak organic acid. It occurs in citrus fruits. Citric acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which is key to aerobic cellular metabolism.

Acetic Acid - Ethanoic Acid

This is the chemical structure of acetic acid.
This is the chemical structure of acetic acid. Todd Helmenstine

Benzoic Acid

Chemical structure of benzoic acid.
Chemical structure of benzoic acid. Malachy120, Getty Images

Ascorbic Acid - Vitamin C

Ascorbic Acid - Vitamin C
Chemical Structures of Acids Ascorbic Acid - Vitamin C. wikipedia.org

The form of ascorbic acid that is vitamin C is L-ascorbic acid. The chemical formula for ascorbic acid is C6H8O6.

Folic Acid

This is the chemical structure of folic acid, also known as vitamin B9 or vitamin M.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of folic acid, also known as vitamin B9 or vitamin M. Todd Helmenstine

Folic acid is also known as folacin or vitamin B9. It is often given as a supplement to pregnant women to help prevent neural tube defects. Folate deficiency leads to anemia.

Phenylalanine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of phenylalanine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of phenylalanine. Todd Helmenstine

Phenylalanine is an amino acid.

Cysteine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of cysteine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of cysteine. Todd Helmenstine

Cysteine is an amino acid.

Glutamine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of glutamine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of glutamine. Todd Helmenstine

Glutamine is an amino acid.

Histidine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of histidine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of histidine. Todd Helmenstine

Histidine is an amino acid.

Isoleucine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of isoleucine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of isoleucine. Todd Helmenstine

Isoleucine is an amino acid.

Phenylalanine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of phenylalanine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of phenylalanine. Todd Helmenstine

Phenylalanine is an amino acid.

Asparagine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of asparagine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of asparagine. Todd Helmenstine

Asparagine is one of the amino acids.

Aspartic Acid - Amino Acid

Chemical Structures of Acids.

Aspartic acid is one of the amino acids.

Glutamic Acid - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of glutamic acid.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of glutamic acid. Todd Helmenstine

Glutamic acid is an amino acid.

Methionine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of methionine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of methionine. Todd Helmenstine

Methionine is an amino acid.

Alanine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of alanine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of alanine. Todd Helmenstine

Alanine is an amino acid.

Glycine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of glycine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of glycine. Todd Helmenstine

Glycine is an amino acid.

Tryptophan - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of tryptophan.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of tryptophan. Todd Helmenstine

Tryptophan is an amino acid.

Leucine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of leucine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of leucine. Todd Helmenstine

Leucine is an amino acid.

Proline - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of proline.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of proline. Todd Helmenstine

Proline is an amino acid.

Serine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of serine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of serine. Todd Helmenstine

Serine is an amino acid.

Threonine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of threonine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of threonine. Todd Helmenstine

Threonine is an amino acid.

Lysine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of lysine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of lysine. Todd Helmenstine

Lysine is an amino acid.

Arginine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of arginine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of arginine. Todd Helmenstine

Arginine is one of the amino acids.

Amino Acid General Structure

This is the general structure of an amino acid.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the general structure of an amino acid. This also shows the ionization of an amino acid at pH = 7.4. Todd Helmenstine

This is the general chemical structure for an amino acid.

Valine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of valine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of valine. Todd Helmenstine

Valine is an amino acid.

Tyrosine - Amino Acid

This is the chemical structure of tyrosine.
Chemical Structures of Acids This is the chemical structure of tyrosine. Todd Helmenstine

Tyrosine is an amino acid.

Hydrobromic Acid Structure

This is the chemical structure of hydrobromic acid, HBr, one of the strong acids.
This is the chemical structure of hydrobromic acid, HBr, one of the strong acids. 718 Bot, Wikipedia Commons

Hydrobromic acid (HBr) is a strong acid.

Nitric Acid

This is the chemical structure of nitric acid.
Common Acid This is the chemical structure of nitric acid. Todd Helmenstine

Nitric acid has the chemical formula HNO3.

Also known as: aqua fortis, azotic acid, engraver's acid, nitroalcohol

Carbonic Acid

This is the chemical structure of carbonic acid.
This is the chemical structure of carbonic acid. Todd Helmenstine

The chemical formula for carbonic acid is CH2O3.

Carbonic acid is also known as: aerial acid, acid of air, dihydrogen carbonate, kihydroxyketone

Oxalic Acid

This is the chemical structure of oxalic acid.
Organic Acid This is the chemical structure of oxalic acid. Todd Helmenstine

The chemical formula for oxalic acid is H2C2O4

Oxalic acid is also known as: ethanedioic acid, hydrogen oxalate, ethanedionate, acidum oxalicum, HOOCCOOH, oxiric acid.

Boric Acid

This is the chemical structure of boric acid.
Common Acid This is the chemical structure of boric acid. Todd Helmenstine

Boric acid has a chemical formula of H3BO3

Boric acid is also known as: acidum boricum, hydrogen orthoborate